The history of science is also a history of toolmaking. And nowhere is this more true than in modern biology. New instruments in the lab allow biologists additional modes of discovery, new levels of quantification, and the opportunity to pursue new and old questions with more data.
David Polsky is a dermatologist and researcher at NYU’s Langone Medical Center. Last week he received a grant from the NCI for readying a new liquid biopsy test that tracks the progression of melanoma for the clinic. Until now, there has been no blood based marker that was able to track melanoma as there is with other cancers such as prostate cancer and the PSA (prostate specific antigen) score. This new test, which could be a major breakthrough for the treatment of melanoma, targets seven mutations which occur in 70% of melanoma patients. These mutations are found in cell free, circulating tumor DNA.
In today’s interview, David points out that the test is possible only with the advent of digital PCR and its ability to measure DNA more with absolute quantification and sensitivity. We knew these mutations before, but just couldn't measure them.
“Droplet digital PCR has been a major breakthrough in our ability to detect rare events and also to quantitate them with accuracy and precision. Those two features are absolutely critical,” says David.
David and his group have been collaborating on the test with Bio-Rad, who makes the ddPCR instruments and designed these tests, and with Molecular MD. Clinical trials with Bristol-Meyers Squibb are expected. Now, with the preliminary science published, the NCI grant will go towards developing analytical and clinical validation so that the test might be commercially available for patients soon.